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Understanding The Working Principles And Internal Architecture Of The LM35DT Temperature Sensor

The LM35DT is a renowned analog temperature sensor in electronic sensing devices widely used in various industries and applications. Its simplicity, accuracy, and ease of integration have made it a go-to solution for measuring temperature in electronic systems.

It employs the principles of proportional temperature measurement, where its analog output voltage directly represents the temperature in Celsius. Its internal architecture consists of a precision temperature-dependent voltage generator, a linear amplifier, and precise calibration circuitry. This article delves deeper into this device’s working principles and internal architecture, shedding light on its design, performance, and applications across various industries.


With a linear scale factor of 10 mV/°C, its output voltage is proportionate to the observed temperature. The sensor can measure temperatures from -55°C to 150°C, making it suitable for various temperature sensing applications.

  • Sensing Element

To translate temperature changes into electrical signals, its sensing component is essential. The sensing element is constructed using integrated circuit fabrication techniques, employing a substrate with interconnected resistors.

This element operates on the principle of temperature-dependent resistance. The resistance of this element rises along with the temperature. This change in resistance is highly linear and directly proportional to the temperature. LM35DT Datasheet has a scale factor of 10 mV/°C. The resistors are specifically made to show resistance variations with temperature.

The precise construction and calibration of the sensing element also enable it to provide accurate temperature measurements within its specified range. Because of its linear response, the sensor is a dependable option for temperature monitoring and control applications because the output voltage precisely reflects the observed temperature.

  • Temperature-to-Voltage Conversion

It utilizes a temperature-to-voltage conversion circuit to convert the resistance changes of the sensing element into a corresponding output voltage that accurately represents the measured temperature. This conversion process is also essential for obtaining meaningful temperature readings.

The sensing element, which exhibits a resistance that changes with temperature, is connected in a voltage divider configuration with a precision current source. The element’s resistance varies as the temperature changes, affecting the voltage division ratio.

The output voltage changes as a function of the voltage division ratio. With a scale factor of 10 mV/°C, the output voltage is directly proportional to the sensor temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 1°C would correspond to a 10 mV increase in the output voltage.

  • Output Buffer

It has an output buffer amplifier to provide a low-impedance output and drive external loads. The output buffer also plays a crucial role in ensuring the accuracy and stability of the temperature measurements obtained from this device.

The output buffer amplifier operates as a voltage follower, which means that it replicates the voltage at its input to its output. This setup protects the output voltage from the load impedance connected to it. The buffer amplifier has high input impedance and a low output impedance, allowing it to efficiently drive external devices without introducing significant voltage drops or distortions.

It also provides a strong and stable output signal, minimizing the impact of noise or interference on the accuracy of temperature measurements. By incorporating an output buffer amplifier, LM35DT pdf ensures that the temperature readings obtained from it are reliable and unaffected by external factors.

  • Calibration and Accuracy

Calibration is essential in ensuring the accuracy of temperature measurements obtained from this device. It also involves comparing its output voltage at known reference temperatures and adjusting to compensate for deviations from the expected values.

At room temperature following calibration, it typically has an accuracy of 0.5°C. However, it is important to note that individual sensors may have slight variations, and calibration helps to account for these differences and improve accuracy.

Calibration can be performed using known reference temperatures, such as a precision temperature reference or a well-calibrated thermometer. The output voltage of this sensor is compared to the expected voltage corresponding to each reference temperature, and any deviations are noted. These deviations can then be used to create a calibration curve to adjust the temperature readings obtained from the sensor.

Regular recalibration may be necessary to maintain accurate temperature measurements, especially if this equipment is in extreme conditions or undergoes long-term use. It also ensures that the temperature readings from this device are reliable and consistent. This thing makes it a valuable tool for temperature monitoring and control applications.

  • Bandgap Reference

It incorporates a built-in bandgap reference to ensure accurate temperature measurements. The bandgap reference is a voltage reference circuit that generates a stable and constant voltage regardless of temperature variations. It serves as a reference point for the internal circuitry, providing a reliable baseline for temperature measurement.

The bandgap reference circuit relies on the temperature-dependent properties of semiconductor materials to maintain a stable voltage. It also utilizes the voltage drop across a forward-biased base-emitter junction of a transistor and combines it with a temperature-dependent voltage from a diode-connected transistor. This gadget compensates for temperature variations in its internal circuitry by incorporating a bandgap reference. It ensures that the temperature-to-voltage conversion and subsequent temperature measurements are accurate and reliable, even in temperature fluctuations.

  • Power Supply Considerations

When using this device, it is important to consider the power supply requirements to ensure accurate temperature measurements and proper operation of the sensor.

It also operates on a single power supply of 4V to 30V. Moreover, providing a stable and well-regulated power source within this voltage range is essential to ensure reliable performance. The power supply should have low noise and minimal voltage fluctuations to prevent interference or inaccuracies in the temperature measurements.

Additionally, it consumes very low power, typically around 60 μA. This low power consumption is advantageous, especially in battery-powered applications, as it helps to conserve energy and prolong battery life. It also minimizes self-heating, which can introduce errors in temperature measurements.

This device can deliver accurate and reliable temperature measurements in various applications by considering power supply requirements, including voltage range, stability, low noise, and proper decoupling.

Summing Up!

The LM35DT is a precision temperature sensor with accurate and linear temperature measurements. Its internal architecture also allows for reliable and precise temperature sensing. Its wide temperature range and low power consumption make it popular for various temperature measurement applications. Proper calibration is essential to ensure accurate temperature readings from the LM35DT.