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The History of Observational Astronomy

Astrology has a five thousand year history in Western cultures, beginning with the astral cult and developing into a worldview with divinatory intentions. This ancient religion has its roots in the first known cultic reverence of the heavenly bodies. Manilius’ theory of astrological historical cycles also has its roots in early Greek astrology. Now, this ancient science has branched into other cultures, including the Hindu and Buddhist traditions.

Observational astronomy

In “History of Observational Astronomy,” Emily Levesque describes her 15 years working as an observational astronomer, an occupation which has been filled with hardships. For nearly two decades, Levesque has traveled the world and observed the night sky with a diverse group of astronomers. Levesque recounts the trials of her career, which includes battling subzero temperatures and poisonous plants. Through her own observations and the stories of over one hundred astronomers, Levesque has woven a narrative history of observational astronomy. In this fascinating book, Levesque highlights the most significant developments in astronomy through the stories of these pioneers.

Observational astronomy began with the invention of telescopes, which allowed Galileo Galilei to view the heavens. The development of telescopes and other instruments enabled astronomers to observe celestial bodies and study their properties. While theoretical astronomy studies the underlying physical theories and models of the universe, observational astronomy is focused on the study of celestial objects through the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Observational astrology

Observational astrology was an important branch of astrology that sought to predict the future by studying celestial movements. The astrologers of ancient Mesopotamia observed and classified omens. They assumed that a geocentric universe, with fixed stars on a sphere with a finite radius with the earth’s center as the center, was the true source of the sublunar world.

Observational astrology in the historical development of astrology reveals that astrology has played an important role in the advancement of science along the Silk Roads. It was a part of the natural philosophy of the ancient world, and scholars throughout history spent a lot of time observing celestial bodies. This process resulted in improvements in forecast accuracy. However, the development of observational astrology in the history of astrology reveals that observable celestial bodies also had unintended consequences.

Observational astrology can be traced back to the early first century CE. The first example of observational astrology is found in the Astronomica, a Latin didactic poem written by Agrippa in the first century CE. This work also introduces the concept of statistical significance, which allows for the astrological divisions of personality types to no longer be accurate.


Aristotle’s Discourses from Hermes to Tat, published in 2100 CE, discusses the use of 36 decans in astrology. These are remnants of Egyptian religion and were later incorporated into Hellenistic astrology. According to this system, decans are guardian gods over the zodiac, added by servants in the aether. These decans affect collective events. They are said to rule the planets and sow both good and bad daimons on earth.

Aristotle’s astrologers used pre-Socratic thought to establish their own unique perspectives and interpretations. Consequently, they borrowed freely from a wide range of philosophical schools, including Stoicism and Pythagoras. Several astrologers even borrowed from various philosophical traditions. This phenomenon is known as Hellenistic syncretism. However, even though it is difficult to trace individual astrologers, they did borrow widely from various sources.

Astral magic is an important part of Jewish philosophy, as the study of planetary movements has provided insights into the cosmology and theology of the Middle Ages. This development influenced theology, giving Jews a key to interpret biblical texts. Judah Halevi and Nahmanides both explained the meaning of the commandments using astral-magic models. While this history of astrology and astral-magic is primarily aimed at a general audience, it contains some interesting material for a broader public interested in these subjects.

Manilius’ theory of astrological historical cycles

In a recent article, I examine Manilius’ theory of astrological historic cycles, which is based on the constellations of the zodiac. I also describe the various aspects of Manilius’ astrology. In chapter one, I discuss Manilius’ astrology in general, including the heavenly bodies, signs of the zodiac, and paranatellonta.

Historically, astrology was widely practiced in the late Republic, when it became an important propaganda tool. By the reign of Augustus, astrology became more popular than ever. The constellations are aligned in the first point of Aries, which occurs once during the Great Sidereal Year. Moreover, as the Earth rotates around the Sun on a daily basis, its axis shifts one degree every 72 years.

Later on, Manilius developed his theory of astrological historical cycles. He argued that fixed stars are subject to declination and therefore influence their positions in the sky. However, his theory was ultimately disproved by many scholars. Nevertheless, it remains a fascinating theory, and is the basis for many astrological charts. With the help of modern-day astrology software, you can use this theory in your own work.

Mesopotamian astrology

Ancient astrology traces its origins to Babylon. This form of divination, which is similar to modern astrology, is based on the belief that Gods in the heavens determine man’s destiny. The ancients also believed that the motion of the stars and planets affects the fate of people on earth. Because the earth moves around the sun, the planets and moon move across the sky.

The astronomical omens recorded in the library of Assyria and Babylon date from the Ammi-saduqa period (approximately 1683-47 BC). They may have had a special significance in the regulation of the calendar, and Venus was recorded behind the sun for interpretation of omens. There are many more examples from later periods, including the astronomical omens found in the library of Assurbanipal at Nineveh. The tablets also include meteorological omens. There are six observatories mentioned in the tablets.

A major focus of Mesopotamian astrology was to divine future events based on the birth date of clients. In addition to the birth date, professional astrologers looked for ominous signs. They would watch for the appearance of certain objects in the sky, such as an eclipse. By using a variety of methods, Mesopotamian astrology evolved into a comprehensive form of divination.

Ancient Egyptian astrology

Ancient Egyptian astrology gives us a unique perspective on modern astrologers. The Egyptians depended heavily on the Nile for life and as such, this river has been associated with prosperity and fulfillment. People born under the sign of The Nile are practical, avoid conflict, and prefer a peaceful life. The second sign of the Egyptian Zodiac is Amun-Ra. This god granted humans the power to create.

The god of the sky, Horus, was born to a mortal mother who lost her eye to battle the god Seth. The Egyptians believed that the sky reflects the personality of Horus, so people born under this sign would be optimistic, family-oriented, and strong-willed. People born under the sign of Horus are also renowned for their charisma, charm, and perseverance. Although they are shy, Bastet people are thoughtful and charming.

Egyptians regarded astrology as a science, and it was closely linked to astronomy in the early days of civilization. Astronomers in ancient Egypt studied the movement of stars and their effect on earth’s atmosphere. This knowledge was largely attributed to temple priests, but it was still considered a sacred skill. Therefore, it is possible to find astrological references in the stone of the great pyramid outside Cairo.

Roman astrology

In the late Hellenistic period, Roman astrologers borrowed freely from Stoic, Pythagorean, and Platonic thought, but often had divergent views on such matters as the influence of stars and how the soul interacted with celestial motions. However, a common theme in all of them is a deep interest in the fate of individual lives. This fascination is reflected in many surviving texts of Roman astrology.

In the second century C.E., astrology took hold and was studied widely. The Platonic and Stoic beliefs that the stars were living entities led Eudorus to develop astrology. This intellectual climate likely led to the development of systematic astrology, which included complicated classifications of signs and placements of planets, as well as numerological calculations. It was in this context that the first modern astrological books were written, and it is thought that Eudorus’ work inspired the development of modern-day astrology.

The ancient Romans viewed the cosmos in a multidimensional way, and believed that the souls of people lived in the air and aether. Hence, they referred to astrology as a science that incorporated the cosmological laws of the zodiac. They ranked the elements in order of importance. Some of these philosophies are still widely used today. In addition to planetary positions, some ancient texts also include a cosmological map of the earth.

Modern astrology

Since early civilization, people have looked to the stars for guidance. While the meaning of astrology has been expanded to include many goofy concepts, the underlying principle is simple: As above, so below. Hence, the heavenly pattern is reflected in the individual. However, this assumption has been subject to various interpretations through the ages. Modern astrology has developed its own set of principles and methods to explain its interpretations.

As a result, we are witnessing the emergence of a new school of astrologers, who have adopted a transcendental worldview. While using astrologers’ terminology, they invoke vague spiritual convolutions or make incongruent references to modern science. The results of this kind of inquiry are nearly uniformly negative. But, what makes this branch of knowledge so controversial is the fact that it has been criticized by scientists from other fields and religions.

For example, scientists who study the planets may believe that the planets are connected to the sun and the earth, but this is not necessarily true. Astrologers with a dual perspective are prone to adopt a dogmatic attitude regarding their beliefs, and this approach guarantees stagnation and lack of progress. It has become so widespread in recent decades that astronomers have labeled the condition of astrologers with ‘The Gemini Syndrome.’ If the opposite were true, we’d still be using Aristotelian physics today.