Robotics automation is slowly taking shape in almost all industries across the world. That can be attributed to the immense benefits that robots bring to a company. Manufacturing firms that utilize robots in their production processes have competitive advantage over the firms that have not implemented the use of robots.

If you are thinking of implementing the use of robots in your industry, or are already using robots to facilitate your manufacturing processes, there is a need for you to know the various important components of a robot. A robot comprises several parts, which enable it to function properly.

A robot cannot function efficiently if it does not have all its parts intact. Hence, there is a need for you to learn the parts so that you can tell what is missing and needs to be added to enable a robot to perform its roles efficiently. The following is a breakdown of five major components of a robot.

1.      Manipulator

This is comparable to the human arm. It is famously identified as the industrial robot arm, and consists of multiple joints plus links. It is controlled electronically and is able to do tasks by working together with its environs. It is mainly utilized in manipulation of materials with the operator not having direct bodily contact with it.

The manipulators or robot arms function mainly like the human arms and are utilized in moving and stationing parts or apparatuses inside the work environment. Three joints are connected using large links to form the manipulator.

2.      Effectors

The effectors comprise the robots’ parts that actually perform the job.  Effectors include any tools, which you can connect to your robot and direct or control via the robot’s computer. The effectors are often specific to the job that you intend your robot to perform for you.

End-effectors are the commonest effectors available. They often are at the periphery of the robotic arms and interact with objects in their surroundings. An example of an end effector is a gripper, which is often attached to the end of a robotic arm. other end-effectors comprise spikes, screw-drivers, hammers, plus lights. Medical robots contain their own customized effectors including apparatuses for cutting during surgery.

3.      The Locomotive Device

The locomotive device comprises the motors. It is compared to the human muscles, which supply power to the palm, arm, plus fingers. Likewise, the robots derive power for motion from the motors.

The motors responsible for locomotion in robots are classified into three groups depending on where it gets its energy from. They include electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic. The pneumatic and hydraulic motors are often used where a robot requires great strength to perform a given task.

4.      The Controller

The control system of a robot defines the behavior of a robot. The digital computer functions as the robot’s controller. The controller behaves in the same manner as the human brain. A robot can carry out tasks that it has been programmed to perform with the help of a controller.

It is the controller that is responsible for directing and controlling the manipulator’s and the end-effector’s motions. Basically, the controller is the central control point for a robot.

5.      The Sensors

Sensors are important parts of a robot, which enable a robot to collect information regarding its environs, and hence a robot to act based on the information. The sensors are mainly measuring tools for measuring elements such as speed, position, force or power, nearness, temperature, and rotating force.

The common types of sensors in robots include cameras, which enable a robot to design a visual illustration of its surroundings. Other sensors are microphones, which enable robots to sense sounds, buttons in the bumpers enabling the detection of coalition with objects, and thermometers plus barometers for sensing temperature plus pressure respectively.


Understanding the various parts of a robot will enable you to know how the robots function. Moreover, they may enable you to devise ways for improving their performance.  Make it your objective to learn the various robot’s components.